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Charles M. Drain

Professor; Chair, Chemistry Department
Department :
Membership :
Full Member
Core Research :
Office :
Room 1408 North
Email :
Office Phone :
(212) 650-3791
Office Fax :
(212) 772-5332
Education :
  • Ph.D., Tufts University
  • Postdoc, The Rockefeller University
Research Interest :

Professor Drain has one of the greatest h-factors in the physical sciences at Hunter College (h=34, a measure of citations/paper), which attests to his well-established international reputation in research. His research presents creative and novel approaches to materials and biochemical problems that address some of the great challenges in science today to meet societal needs with reduced environmental impacts. Notably, these approaches are commercially viable. Another indication of the broad impact of professor Drain’s research is that it is featured on the cover of several international publications including Chemical & Engineering News, the scientific publication with the largest circulation in the world. The National Science Foundation uses his work as an example of supramolecular chemistry.

The common theme in The Drain lab’s research portfolio is the creative applications of chromophores (dyes) to develop innovative technologies that have commercial potential; most recently these are for urban photovoltaic coatings for windows and for clickable labeling of biomolecular systems. The research in the Drain lab includes: (1) new tools for biochemical research as “trackers” and systems for single molecule fluorescence patented by CUNY and commercialization by Chlorophore, LLC; (2) new sugar coated dyes as theranostics (diagnostic and therapeutic), which he and collaborators are working on to get into clinical trials; (3) new photonic materials for sensors, solar energy harvesting, and understanding the fundamental physical processes underlying the functions; (4) hybrid materials for molecular electronics; (5) radiochemistry and applications of radiolabeled nanoparticles for cancer diagnostics and treatment in collaboration with Drs. Moritz Kircher and Jan Grimm at Memorial Sloan Kettering. Dr. Drain has seminal papers with three different Nobel Laureates:  R.B. Merrifield for new approaches to antibiotics, J.-M. Lehn for new approaches to self-organized dyes, and E.R. Kandel for new RNA probes for in vivo biochemical studies. In many ways, one can consider his seminal 1989 paper in the Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences as the starting point for the design and evaluation self-organized molecular devices and photonics, of which there are now many thousands of papers.

Highlights of each topic are given here.  Synthetic chemistry:  The click chemistry on porphyrins (related to chlorophyll and hemoglobin cofactors) and phthalocyanines (commercial dyes) that the Drain lab developed are now so widely used that his former doctoral student, Xianchang Gong, started a company, Huhu Technology, Inc. to manufacture and marked the core dye platforms. His development of an environmentally friendly method to make the porphyrins is now used commercially and even in undergraduate teaching labs. Therapies and diagnostics: though he did not come up with the idea of ‘sugar coating’ photodynamic therapeutics for cancer, his key insight for this was to make them stable to in vivo conditions. The Biochemistry paper with David Foster is highly cited (>160 times), shows the effectiveness of the approach. There are now several dozen international labs using this strategy to develop new therapeutics for cancer, bacterial infections, and biochemistry.  Photonic Materials. Photosynthesis, the basis for all life on earth, provides inspiration for the new organic photonic materials made in Mike’s lab. These are designed for urban applications as transparent coatings on windows, and this highly creative and innovative approach is featured on two journal covers.  Molecular electronics. Mike and his collaborator  James Batteas at Texas A&M and the National Institute of Standards and technology (NIST) have recently reported the first example of an organic molecular device that has the properties of a Coulomb blockade – electrons moving though the device in single file. Radiolabeled nanoparticles for molecular imaging and therapy. Chelator-free nanoparticles for intrinsic radiolabeling are highly desirable for whole-body imaging and therapeutic applications. Drs. Drain, Grimm, and Kircher, reported that amorphous silica nanoparticles serve as general substrates for chelator-free radiolabeling and demonstrated their ability to bind six medically relevant isotopes of various oxidation states with high radiochemical yield. These are stable in vivo and the binding correlates with the hardness of the radioisotope. Intrinsically labeled silica nanoparticles prepared by this approach demonstrate excellent in vivo stability and efficacy in lymph node imaging.

The education and training of women and underrepresented minorities in the physical sciences continues to be a hallmark of Drain’s research program because of his vigorous, proactive recruiting and mentoring of both minority and non-minority students (Chemical & Engineering News). He has mentored over 30 minority undergraduates, five minority graduate students, one minority postdoc. In turn, they serve as mentors, leaders, and have a large impact on the scientific community across the USA. His success in this endeavor was acknowledged by his nomination for the American Chemical Society Award for Encouraging Disadvantaged Students into Careers in the Chemical Sciences.

Selected Publications :


  1. W. Rizvi, Charles M. Drain, Patrick Moy, Matthew J. Jurow, “Solventless Synthesis, Separation and Characterization of Zinc and Free-Base Tetraphenyl Porphyrin” in Comprehensive Organic Chemistry Experiments for the Laboratory Classroom, Royal Soc. Chem. 2015. ISBN-10: 1849739633
  2. A. Pawlicki, E. Avery, M.  Jurow, B. Ewers, A. Vilan, C.M. Drain, J.D. Batteas, J. Phys: Cond. Mat. 2016, 28, 094013, 11pages. “Studies of the Structure and Phase Transitions of Nano-confined Pentanedithiol and its Applications in Directing Hierarchical Molecular Assemblies on Au(111)"
  3. N. V. S. D. K. Bhupathiraju, W. Rizvi, J. D. Batteas, C. M. Drain, Org. Biomol. Chem. 2016, 14, 389-408. "Fluorinated Porphyrinoids as Efficient Platforms for New Photonic Materials, Sensors, and Therapeutics" Cover article, DOI: 10.1039/C5OB01839K
  4. S. Singh, A. Aggarwal, N. V. S. D. K. Bhupathiraju, G. Arianna, K. Tiwari, and C.M. Drain, Chem. Rev.,  2015, 115, 10261-10306. “Glycosylated Porphyrins, Phthalocyanines, and Other Porphyrinoids for Diagnostics and Therapeutics”
  5. A. E. Schuckman, B. W. Ewers, L. H. Yu, J. P. C. Tome, L. M Perez, C. M. Drain, J. G Kushmerick, J. D. Batteas,  J. Phys. Chem. C, 2015, 119, 13569−13579. “Utilizing Nearest-Neighbor Interactions to Alter Charge Transport Mechanisms in Molecular Assemblies of Porphyrins on Surfaces”
  6. T. M. Shaffer, M. A. Wall, S. Harmsen, V. A. Longo, C. M. Drain, M. F. Kircher, J. Grimm, Nano Lett. 2015, 15, 864-868. "Silica Nanoparticles as Substrates for Chelator-free Labeling of Oxophilic Radioisotopes"
  7. S. Singh, A. Aggarwal, N. V. S. D. K. Bhupathiraju, B. Newton, A. Nafees, R. Gao, C. M. Drain, Tet. Let. 2014, 55, 6311-6314. "Synthesis and cell phototoxicity of a triply bridged fused diporphyrin appended with six thioglucose units"
  8. T. H. Hasson, A. Takaoka, R. de la Rica, H. Matsui, G. Smeureanu, C. M. Drain, A. Kawamura. Chem. Biol. Drug Des. 2014, 83, 493–497. “Immunostimulatory Lipid Nanoparticles from Herbal Medicine”
  9. A. Aggarwal, S. Thompson, S. Singh, B. Newton, A. Moore, R. Gao, X. Gu, S. Mukherjee, C.M. Drain. Photochem. Photobiol. 2014, 90, 419–430. “Photophysics of Glycosylated Derivatives of a Chlorin, Isobacteriochlorin and Bacteriochlorin for Photodynamic Theragnostics: Discovery of a Two-photon-absorbing Photosensitizer” DOI: 10.1111/php.12179,  PMID:24112086
  10. M. Jurow, A. Varotto, V. Manichev, N. A. Travlou, D. A. Giannakoudakis, C. M. Drain, RSC Adv. 2013, 3, 21360–21364, “Self-organized nanostructured materials of alkylated phthalocyanines and underivitized C60 on ITO” 10.1039/c3ra43795g;
  11. M. Jurow, V. Manichev, C. Pabon, B. Hageman, Y. Matolina, C. M. Drain Inorg. Chem. 2013, 52, 10576-10582. “Self-Organization of Zr(IV) Porphyrinoids on Graphene Oxide Surfaces by Axial Metal Coordination” PMID:24007316
  12. I. Radivojevic, B.P. Burton-Pye, R. Saleh, K. Ithisuphalap, L. C. Francesconi, C. M. Drain, RSC Adv. 2013, 3, 2174-2177. “Ternary phthalocyanato Hf(IV) and Zr(IV) polyoxometalate complexes” PMID:22962625
  13. M. J. Jurow, B. A. Hageman, E. DiMasi, C.-Y. Nam, C. Pabon, C.T. Black, C. M. Drain, J. Mater. Chem. A 2013, 1, 1557–1565. DOI: 10.1039/C2TA00415A.  “Controlling Morphology and Molecular Packing of Alkane Substituted Phthalocyanine Blend Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells” Cover article. PMID:23589766
  14. A. Aggarwal, C. L. McConnell, and C. M. Drain, “Adaptive Organic Nanoparticles of Porphyrinoids: Synthesis and Applications” in Nanotechnology: Fundamentals, Synthesis and Characterization, S. Sinha, N. K. Navani, J. N. Govil, Eds. Studium Press LLC, New Delhi, 2013, Vol-2, Chapter-15, pp 429-454.
  15. Radivojevic, G. Bazzan, B. P. Burton-Pye, K. Ithisuphalap, R. Saleh, M. F. Durstock, L. C. Francesconi, C. M. Drain, J. Phy. Chem. C 2012, 116, 15867-15877. "Zirconium(IV) and Hafnium(IV) Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine Complexes as New Dyes for Solar Cell Devices" PMID:22962625
  16. M. Jurow, C. Farley, C. Pabon, B. Hageman, A. Dolor, C. M. Drain, Chem. Commun. 2012, 48, 4731-4733.  “Facile synthesis of a flexible tethered porphyrin dimer that preferentially complexes fullerene C70” PMID: 22488020
  17. A. Aggarwal, S. Singh, J. Samson,  C. M. Drain, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2012, 23, 1220-1226. "Adaptive organic nanoparticles of a Teflon coated iron (III) porphyrin catalytically activate dioxygen for cyclohexene oxidation“  DOI = 10.1002/marc.201200107, PMID: 22517679
  18. A. Aggarwal, S. Singh, C.M. Drain, J. Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines 2011, 15, 1–7. “Nanoaggregates of Mn(III)tetraperfluorophenylporphyrin: a greener approach for allylic oxidation of olefins”
  19. J. Samson, I. Piscopo, A. Yampolski, P. Nahirney, A. Parpas, A. Aggarwal, R. Saleh and C. M. Drain, Nanomaterials 2011, 1, 64-78. “Fabrication of Size-Tunable Metallic Nanoparticles Using Plasmid DNA as a Biomolecular Reactor” doi:10.3390/nano1010064
  20. A. Aggarwal, S. Singh, Y. Zhang, M. Anthes, D. Samaroo, R. Gao, C.M. Drain Tetrahedron Lett.2011, 52, 5456-5459.Synthesis and photophysics of an octathioglycosylated zinc(II) phthalocyanine” PMID: 21966031
  21. A. Aggarwal, M. Qureshy, J. Johnson, James D. Batteas, C. M. Drain, D. Samaroo, J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 2011, 15, 338–349. “Responsive porphyrinoid nanoparticles: development and applications”
  22. J. Samson, P.C. Nahirney, C.M. Drain, I. Piscopo, Microscopy Today 2011, 19, 38-41. “Simplifying Electron Diffraction Pattern Identification of Mixed-Material Nanoparticles”
  23. S. Singh, A. Aggarwal, C. Farley, B.A. Hageman, J.D. Batteas and C. M. Drain Chem. Commun. 2011. 47, 7134 - 7136 “Hierarchical Organization of a Robust Porphyrin Cage Self-Assembled by Hydrogen Bonds” PMID: 21614367
  24. A.  Sahar, J. Vance, C. M. Drain J. Chem. Educ. 2011, 88, 615–618. “Lithography of Polymer Nanostructures on Glass for Teaching Polymer Chemistry and Physics” YouTube video:; PMID: 21686088
  25. A. Varotto, G. Smeureanu, A. Aggarwal, C. M. Drain, “Highly Fluorinated Porphyrins: from Ultra-thin Films to Nanoparticles in Catalysis” in ACS Symposium Series, Fluorine-related Nanoscience with Energy Applications American Chemical Society, Washington 2011. Chapter 4, pp 55-68. DOI: 10.1021/bk-2011-1064.ch004
  26. G. Bazzan, A. Aggarwal, C. M. Drain  “Electrochemical studies of Self-Organized Porphyrin-Polyoxometalate Films on ITO on Surfaces” in ACS Symposium Series, Interfaces and Interphases in Analytical Chemistry, R. Helburn, M. F. Vitha, Eds. American Chemical Society, Washington , 2011 Ch. 7, pp 167-184. DOI: 10.1021/bk-2011-1062.ch007
  27. I. Radivojevic,   M. Sfeir, C.-Y. Nam, B. P. Burton-Pye, A. Falber, C. T. Black, C. M. Drain,  Proc. IEEE: Solar Energy, 2010, 003280-003284. “Hafnium (IV) and zirconium (IV) porphyrinoid diacetate complexes as new dyes for solar cells”
  28. S. Singh, A. Aggarwal, S. Thompson, J. P. C. Tomé, X. Zhu, D. Samaroo, M. Vinodu, R. Gao,  C. M. Drain, Bioconjugate Chem. 2010, 21, 2136–2146. “Synthesis and photophysical properties of thioglycosylated- chlorins, isobacteriochlorins and bacteriochlorins for bioimaging and diagnostics” PMID: 20964323
  29. S. Nia, X. Gong, C. M. Drain, M. Jurow, W. Rizvi, M. Qureshy J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines, 2010, 14, 621–629. “Solvent-free synthesis of meso tetraarylporphyrins in air: product diversity and yield optimization”
  30. M.  Jurow, A. E. Schuckman, J. D. Batteas, C. M. Drain Coord.  Chem. Revs. 2010 254, 2297–2310. “Porphyrins as molecular electronic components of functional devices” PMID: 20936084
  31. A. Toschi, M. Lee, S. Thompson, N. Gadir, P. Yellen, C.M. Drain, M, Ohh, D.A. Foster, Cancer Lett. 2010, 72–79. “Phospholipase D-mTORC2 requirement for the Warburg effect in human cancer cells” PMID:20805015
  32. I. Radivojevic, A. Varotto, C. Farley, C.M. Drain Energy Env. Sci. 2010, 3, 1897–1909. Cover story. “Commercially Viable Porphyrinoid Dyes for Solar Cell Applications” 
  33. A. Varotto, C.-Y. Nam, I. Radivojevic, J. P. C. Tomé, J.A.S. Cavaleiro, C. T. Black, C. M. Drain J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 2552–2554. “Phthalocyanine Blends Improve Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells” PMID: 20136126
  34. C.M. Drain. S. Singh, Combinatorial Chemistry of Porphyrins” in The Handbook of Porphyrin Science with Applications to Chemistry, Physics, Materials Science, Engineering, Biology and Medicine, Ch. 15, pp 485-540. World Scientific Publishers, Singapore, 2010.
  35. I. Radivojevic, I. Likhtina, X. Shi, S. Singh, C. M. Drain Chem. Commun. 2010, 46, 1643–1645. “Self-organized nanofibers and nanorods of porphyrins bearing hydrogen bonding motifs” PMID: 20177602
  36. R. de la Rica, S. Thompson, A. Baldi, C. Fernandez-Sanchez, C. M. Drain, H. Matsui, Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 10167–10171. “Label-Free Cancer Cell Detection with Impedimetric Transducers” PMID: 19911810
  37. G. Smeureanu, A. Aggarwal, C. E. Soll, J. Arijeloye, Erik Malave, C. M. Drain Chem. Eur. J. 2009, 15, 12133 – 12140. “Enhanced Catalytic Activity and Unexpected Products from the Oxidation of Cyclohexene by Organic Nanoparticles of 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)porphyrinatoiron (III) in Water by Using O2” PMID: 19777510
  38. C. M. Drain, S. Singh, D. Samaroo, S. Thompson, M. Vinodu, J. P. C. Tome, Proc. Soc. Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers-SPIE 2009, 7380, 73902K-1-9. “New Porphyrin  Glyco-conjugates”
  39. A. Falber, B. P. Burton-Pye, I. Radivojevic, L. Todaro, R. Saleh, L. C. Francesconi, C. M. Drain Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2009, 2459–2466.Ternary Porphyrinato Hf(IV) and Zr(IV) Polyoxometalate Complexes”
  40. C.M. Drain, A. Varotto, I. Radivojevic Chem. Reviews 2009, 109, 1630–1658. “Self-Organized Porphyrinic Materials” PMID: 19253946 (Featured on cover)
  41. J. Samson, A. Varotto, P. C. Nahirney, A. Toschi, I. Piscopo, C. M. Drain, ACS Nano 2009, 3 339-344. “Fabrication of Metal Nanoparticles Using Toroidal Plasmid DNA as a Sacrificial Mold” PMID: 19236069
  42. A. Varotto, L. Todaro, M. Vinodu, J. Koehne, G.-y. Liu, C.M. Drain, Chem. Com. 2008, 4921-4923. “Self-organization of a new fluorous porphyrin and C60 films on indium-tin-oxide electrodes” PMID: 18931739
  43. S. Thompson,  X. Chen, L. Hui, A. Toschi, D. A. Foster, C.M. Drain, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 2008, 7, 1415-1421. “Low Concentrations of a non-hydrolysable tetra-S-glycosylated porphyrin and low light induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells via stress of the endoplasmic reticulum” PMID: 18958330
  44. N. Stevens, N. O’Connor, H. Vishwasrao. D. Samaroo, E.R. Kandel, D.L. Akins, C.M. Drain, N.J. Turro, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008,  130, 7182-7183.  “Two Color RNA Intercalating Probe for Cell Imaging Applications” PMID: 18489094
  45. W. K. Serem, A. Varotto, G. Castro, C. M. Drain, J. C. Garno NOBCChE Proceedings 2008, 2-9. “Investigation of the Vibrational Response of Individual Nanoparticles using AFM with Magnetic Sample Modulation”
  46. Y.-H. Chan, A.E. Schuckman, L.M. Perez, M. Vinodu, C.M. Drain, J.D. Batteas, J. Phys. Chem. C., 2008; 112, 6110-6118. “Synthesis and Characterization of a Thiol-tethered Tripyridyl Porphyrin on Au(111)”
  47. G. Bazzan, W. Smith, L.C. Francesconi, C.M. Drain, Langmuir, 2008, 24, 3244-3249. “Electrostatic Self-Organization of Robust Porphyrin-Polyoxometalate Films” PMID: 18321141
  48.  A. Falber, L. Todaro, I. Goldberg, M.V. Favilla, C. M. Drain Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47, 454-467 “Routes to New Hafnium(IV)Tetra-aryl Porphyrins and Crystal Structures of Unusual Phosphate, Sulfate, and Peroxide Bridged Dimers” PMID: 18088113
  49. T.S. Balaban, N. Berova, C.M. Drain, R. Hauschild, H. Kalt, S. Lebedkin, J.-M. Lehn, X. Huang, F. Nifaitis, G. Pescitelli, V.I. Prokhorenko, G. Riedel, G. Smeureanu, J. Zeller, Chem. Eur. J. 2007, 13, 8411-8427. “Syntheses and Energy Transfer in Multiporphyrin Arrays Self-Assembled with Hydrogen Bonding Recognition Groups: Towards Artificial Light-Harvesting DevicesPMID: 17645286
  50. D. Samaroo, M. Vinodu, X. Chen, C.M. Drain, J. Combi. Chem. 2007, 9, 998-1011. “Meso-tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin is an Efficient Platform for Combinatorial Synthesis, and the Selection of New Photodynamic Therapeutics using a Cancer Cell Line” PMID: 17877415
  51. C. M. Drain, G. Smeureanu,  S. Patel, X. Gong, J. Garno, J. Arijeloye, New J. Chem. 2006, 30, 1834-1843.  “Porphyrin Nanoparticles as Supramolecular Systems”
  52. D. Samaroo, C. E. Soll, L. J. Todaro, C. M. Drain Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 4985 – 4988. “Efficient microwave-assisted synthesis of amine substituted pentafluorophenylporphyrin” PMID: 17048824
  53. K.F. Cheng, N. A. Thai, L. C. Teague, K. Grohmann,  C.M. Drain, Inorg. Chem. 2006, 45, 6928-6932. “Tessellation of Porphyrazines with Porphyrins by Design” PMID: 16903751
  54. J. M. Helt, C. M. Drain, G Bazzan. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128(29); 9371-9377. “Stamping Patterns of Insulated Gold Nanowires with Self-Organized Ultrathin Polymer Films” PMID: 16848472
  55. J.C. Garno, C. Xu, G. Bazzan, J. D. Batteas, C. M. Drain, ACS Symposium series: Metal-Containing and Metallo-Supramolecular Polymers and Materials, U.S. Schubert, G.R. Newcome, I. Manners eds. 2006, 928, 168-183; American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. Book Chapter: “Designing Supramolecular Porphyrin Arrays for Surface Assembly and Patterning of Optoelectronic Materials”
  56. C. Xu, T. Wu, C. M. Drain, J. D. Batteas, M. J. Fasolka, K. L. Beers, Macromolecules, 2006, 39, 3359-3364. “Effect of Block Length on Solvent Response of Block Copolymer Brushes: Combinatorial Study with Block Copolymer Brush Gradients”
  57. M. Vittadello, P. E. Stallworth, F. M. Alamgir, S. Suarez, S. Abbrent, C. M. Drain, V. Di Noto, S. G. Greenbaum, Inorg. Chim. Acta 2006, 339, 2513-2518.  "Polymeric d-MgCl2 nanoribbons"
  58. C. Xu, T. Wu, J. D. Batteas, C. M. Drain, K. L. Beers, M. J. Fasolka, Applied Surface Science, 2006, 252 (7), 2529-2534. "Surface-grafted block copolymer gradients: Effect of block length on solvent response"
  59. C. Xu, T. Wu, Y. Mei, C.M. Drain, J.D. Batteas, K. L. Beers, Langmuir, 2005; 21, 11136-11140. “Synthesis and Characterization of Tapered Copolymer Brushes via Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Copolymerization” PMID: 16285782
  60. K.F. Cheng, N.A. Thai, L.C. Teague, K. Grohmann, C.M. Drain, Chem. Comm. 2005, 4678-4680. “Supramolecular squares of porphyrazines” PMID: 16175290
  61. C.M. Drain, G. Bazzan, T. Milic, M. Vinodu, J. C. Goeltz. Israel J. Chem. 2005, 45, 255-269. Formation and Applications of Stable 10 nm to 500 nm Supramolecular Porphyrinic Materials
  62. C. Xu, T. Wu, C. M. Drain, J. D. Batteas, K. L. Beers Macromolecules 2005, 38, 6-8. “Microchannel Confined Surface-Initiated Polymerization”
  63. C.M. Drain, I. Goldberg, I. Sylvain, A. Falber Top. Curr. Chem. 2005, 245, 55–88. “Synthesis and Applications of Supramolecular Porphyrinic Materials”
  64. X. Chen and C.M. Drain, Drug Design Reviews - Online, 2004, 1(3), 215-234. Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. ( ) “Photodynamic Therapy Using Carbohydrate Conjugated Porphyrins”
  65. X. Chen, L. Hui, D. A. Foster, C. M. Drain,  Biochemistry 2004, 43, 10918-10929. "Efficient Synthesis and Photodynamic Activity of Porphyrin-Saccharide Conjugates: Targeting and Incapacitating Cancer Cells” PMID: 15323552
  66. C. Xu, T. Wu, C. M. Drain, J. D. Batteas, K. L. Beers ACS Polymer Reprints, 2004, 45(2), 667-668.  Synthesis of Gradient Copolymer Brushes via Surface Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Copolymerization”
  67. C.M. Drain, T. Milic, J. C. Garno, G. Smeureanu, J.D. Batteas  ACS Polymer Reprints 2004, 45(1), 346-347.  "Organizing Self-Assembled Porphyrin Arrays On Metal And Glass Surfaces"
  68. T. Milic, J. C. Garno, G. Smeureanu, J. D. Batteas, C. M. Drain, Langmuir, 2004, 20, 3974-3983 ‘Self-Organization of Self-Assembled Tetrameric Porphyrin Arrays on Surfaces” PMID: 15969388
  69. C.M. Drain, G. Smeareanu, J.D. Batteas, S. Patel. Book chapter: Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology, “Self-assembled Porphyrin Arrays on Surfaces,” Vol 5. pp3481-3502. J.A. Schwartz, C.I. Contescu, K. Putyera, Eds.; Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, 2004.
  70. J. M. Helt, C. M. Drain, J. D. Batteas, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 2004, 628-634. “A Bench Top Method for the Fabrication and Patterning of Nanoscale Structures on Polymers” PMID: 14719962
  71. C.M. Drain, X. Chen. Book chapter: Encyclopedia of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology “Self-Assembled Porphyrinic NanoarchitecturesVol. 9, pp593-616. H.S. Nalwa Edt., American Scientific Press, 2004.
  72. J. L. Retsek, C. M. Drain, C. Kirmaier,D. J. Nurco, C. J. Medforth, K. M. Smith,  V. S. Chirvony, J. Fajer, D. Holten. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 9787-9800.  ”Photoinduced Axial Ligation and Deligation Dynamics of Nonplanar Nickel Dodecaarylporphyrins” PMID: 12904044
  73. C.M. Drain, K.F. Cheng, K. Grohmann Inorg. Chem. 2003, 42, 2075-2083. ”Porphyrins Linked Directly to the 5,5’ Positions of 2, 2’- Bipyridine: A New Supramolecular Building Block and Switch” PMID: 12639144
  74. X. Gong, T. Milic, C. Xu, J. D. Batteas, C. M. Drain J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 14290-14291. “Preparation and characterization of porphyrin nanoparticles” PMID: 12452687
  75. C.M. Drain, J.T. Hupp, K Suslick, M. Waseleiwski, X. Chen J. Porph. Phthal.  2002, 6243-258.  “A perspective on four new porphyrin-based functional materials and devices”
  76. T. N. Milic, N. Chi, D. G. Yablon, G. W. Flynn, J. D. Batteas, C. M. Drain Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 2002, 41, 2117-2119. “Controlled Hierarchical Self-Assembly and Deposition of Nanoscale Photonic Materials” PMID: 19746614
  77. C.M. Drain Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 2002, 99, 5178-5182. “Self-organization of self-assembled photonic materials into functional devices: Photo-switched conductors” PMID: 11943850
  78. C.M. Drain, J.D. Batteas, G.W. Flynn, T. Milic, N. Chi, D.G. Yablon, H. Sommers.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA  2002, 99, 6498-6502.  “Self-assembly of Supramolecular Porphyrin Arrays that Self-Organize into Nanoscale Optical and Magnetic Materials” PMID: 11880598
  79. X. Shi, K. M. Barkigia, J. Fajer, C. M. Drain, J. Org. Chem. 2001, 66, 6513-6522. “Design and Synthesis of Porphyrins Bearing Rigid Hydrogen Bonding Motifs: Highly Versatile Building Blocks for Self-Assembly of Polymers and Discrete Arrays” PMID: 11578199
  80. P. Pasetto, X. Chen, C. M. Drain, R.W. Franck, Chem. Commun, 2001, 82-83.  “Synthesis of hydrolytically stable porphyrin C- and S- glycoconjugates in high yields”
  81. X. Shi, F. Nifiatis, T. Milic, and C. M. Drain, Chem. Commun. 2001, 287-288.Self-assembled multiporphyrin arrays mediated by self-complementary quadruple hydrogen bond motifs” (addendum 2001).
  82. C. M. Drain, X. Gong, V. Ruta, C. E. Soll, and P. F. Chicoineau J. Combin. Chem. 1999, 1, 286-290. “Combinatorial Synthesis and Modification of Functional Porphyrin Libraries: Identification of New, Amphipathic Motifs for Biomolecule Binding” PMID: 10748737
  83. C.M. Drain, F. Nifiatis, A. Vasenko, J. Batteas, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 1998, 37, 2344-2347. Ibid. Angew. Chem. 1998, 110, 2474.  Porphyrin tessellation by design:  Metal mediated self-assembly of large arrays and tapes.A  See “Materials to Meet Tomorrow’s Challenges” Cover story of C&E News 1998, page 35-44, June 8.
  84. C.M. Drain, S. Gentemann, J.A. Roberts, N.Y. Nelson, C.J. Medforth, S. Jai, M.C. Simpson, K.M. Smith, J. Fajer, J.A. Shelnutt, and D. Holten.  J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120, 3781-3791.  “Picosecond to microsecond photodynamics of a nonplanar nickel porphyrin: Solvent dielectric and temperature effects.”
  85. C.M. Drain and X. Gong. Chem. Commun. 1997, 2117-2118.B  “Synthesis of meso substituted porphyrins in air without solvents or catalysts”
  86. C. M. Drain, C. Kirmaier, C. Medforth, D. Nurco, K.M. Smith, and D. Holten.  J. Phys. Chem. 1996, 100 11983-11993.  “Dynamic photophysical properties of conformationally distorted nickel(II) porphyrins 1.  Nickel(II) dodecaphenylporphyrin.”
  87. C.M. Drain, K.C. Russell, and J.-M. Lehn. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1996, 337-338.  “Self-assembly of a multi-porphyrin supramolecular macrocycle by hydrogen-bond molecular recognition.”
  88. C.M. Drain and J.-M. Lehn. Chem. Commun. 1994, 2313-2315.  “Self-assembly of square multiporphyrin arrays by metal ion coordination.” Corrigenda 1995, 503.
  89. C.M. Drain, D. Wade, P. Fehlner, and R.B. Merrifield. 13th Amer. Pept. Symp. 1993, S2, 93.  “The role of lysine-7 in the voltage gating, ion selectivity, and hemolytic activity of melettin pores.”
  90. C.M. Drain, R. Fischer, E. Nolen, and J.-M. Lehn.  J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1993, 243-245.  “Self-assembly of a bis-porphyrin cage induced by molecular recognition between complementary hydrogen bonding sites.”
  91. C.M. Drain and D. Mauzerall. Biophys. J. 1992, 63, 1556-1563.  “Photogating of ionic currents across the lipid bilayer:  Hydrophobic ion conduction by an ion chain mechanism.” PMID: 1489913
  92. D. Mauzerall and C.M. Drain. Biophys. J. 1992, 63, 1544-1555.  “Photogating of ionic currents across the lipid bilayer:  Electrostatics of ions and dipoles inside the membrane.” PMID: 1489912
  93. C.M. Drain and D. Mauzerall.  Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 1990, 24, 263-266.  “An example of a working Charge Sensitive Ion Conductor (CSIC).”
  94. D. Wade, A. Boman, B. Wåhlin, C.M. Drain, D. Andreu, H.G. Boman, and R.B. Merrifield. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 1990, 87, 4761-4765.  “All-D amino acid channel-forming antibiotic peptides.” PMID: 1693777
  95. C.M. Drain, D. Sable, and B.B. Corden. Inorg. Chem. 1990, 29, 1428-1433.  “The reactivity of 1,4,7,10,13-pentaazacyclohexadecane-14,16-dionato(2-) nickel(II) towards derivatives of methyl-coenzyme-M.”
  96. C.M. Drain and B.B. Corden. Inorg. Chem. 1989, 28, 4374-4376.  “Synthesis and characterization of copper(II)  5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,6-dipivalamidophenyl)porphyrin:  a bis-picket-fence porphyrin.”
  97. C.M. Drain, B. Christensen, and D. Mauzerall. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 1989, 86, 6959-6962.  “Photogating of ionic currents across the lipid bilayer.” PMID: 2476808
  98. C.M. Drain, D. Sable, and B.B. Corden, Inorg. Chem. 1988, 27, 2396-2398. “Nickel(II) dioxo[16]ane-N5  induced methane formation from methyl-coenzyme-M.”
  99. C.M. Drain and B.B. Corden, J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 441-443.  “Reversible oxygenation of oxygen transport proteins.

A * One of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) top 10 most cited papers in chemistry for Fall 1999.

B This procedure is used in several undergraduate teaching labs (such as the University of California Riverside and the University of Oregon) as an inexpensive way to teach ‘green’ chemistry.


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